In Britain, officially allowed to sell CBD in stores

Most CBD oils are sold as food supplements. However, in 2016, the MHRA (Medicines & Healthcare products Regulatory Agency) stated that products containing cannabidiol (CBD) could be classed as a medicine, if used for medicinal purposes. To be sold, supplied and advertised as medicines, CBD products must have a license. The licensing ensures that CBD oil products meet safety, quality and efficacy standards. These standards and regularity guidance help to make sure that CBD products are safe for people to take and use as medicines. If you would like to start taking CBD oil to treat or manage a condition, it’s best to discuss this with your GP.

CBD is not recommended for those who are pregnant, breastfeeding or taking medication. If you are already taking medication, we suggest you speak to your doctor before using any CBD products.

Can I take CBD oil in the UK?

There are hundreds of CBD brands and product types that you can take and use in the UK. These include CBD oils, sprays, capsules and skincare to name a few that. If they meet the standards set by the MHRA, these products are safe to take in the UK. However, CBD is not recommended for those who are pregnant, breastfeeding or taking medication. If you are already taking medication, we suggest you speak to your doctor before using any CBD products.

The Foods Standard Agency have released new advice around CBD and the amount people should be taking, they recommend no more than 70mg a day unless your doctor has advised otherwise. So, make sure to check the product packaging on your CBD oil to make sure you take the right dosage. If you’re already taking a high dose you may want to minimise the amount you’re taking daily. If you’re unsure you can always talk to a pharmacist or doctor about your CBD usage.

What are the UK regulations for CBD oil?

CBD product have to follow certain regulations when being produced and sold within the UK. This form of quality control applies to manufacturers and the processes they use to create the CBD products they sell and supply. However, with more and more vape and CBD shops springing up on the high street it can be hard to know who is adhering to UK regulations. It’s always best to do your research, speak to a pharmacist or doctor before you try CBD products for yourself.


Hemp is of first necessity to the wealth & protection of the country.

Thomas Jefferson

The advantage of using of CBD

The body produces endocannabinoids, which are neurotransmitters that bind to cannabinoid receptors in your nervous system.

Studies have shown that CBD may help reduce chronic pain by affecting endocannabinoid receptor activity, reducing inflammation, and interacting with neurotransmitters (4Trusted Source).

Some research suggests that CBD may be effective for certain types of pain, including nerve pain and back pain, when used on its own. However, it seems to be most effective when combined with THC (5Trusted Source6Trusted Source).

Several human studies have found that a combination of CBD and THC is effective in treating pain related to multiple sclerosis (MS) and arthritis.

An oral spray called Sativex (nabiximols), which is a 1:1 combination of THC and CBD, is approved in several countries to treat pain related to MS.

A study that included 47 people with MS examined the effects of taking Sativex for a month. The participants experienced improvements in pain, walking ability, and muscle spasms (7Trusted Source).

Still, the study didn’t include a control group, so placebo effects cannot be ruled out (7Trusted Source).

In one review, researchers noted that Sativex may benefit those with MS-associated neuropathic pain and chronic severe neuropathic pain. The review also found that Sativex may help relieve anxiety and stress, which are major drivers of chronic pain (8Trusted Source).

Additionally, some research suggests that CBD may relieve symptoms of rheumatic diseases such as fibromyalgia.

A study that included survey data from 2,701 people with fibromyalgia found that those who used CBD for pain relief generally reported slight to significant improvement in symptoms (9Trusted Source).

And according to preclinical evidence from rodent studies, CBD may have beneficial effects on pain and inflammation related to arthritis, but human studies are lacking (10Trusted Source).

Although researchers are cautiously optimistic that CBD may be helpful in the treatment of some types of pain, especially when combined with THC, more high quality studies are needed to determine its effectiveness in pain management.


Properties of CBD

  • Boosts metabolism
  • Gives energy
  • Makes you more active
  • Relieves fatigue

CBD, especially in combination with THC, may be effective for reducing certain types of pain associated with conditions such as MS and fibromyalgia. Still, more research is needed to investigate its potential use in pain management

Things you didn’t know about CBD

Could reduce symptoms related to some mental health disorders

Anxiety disorders and other mental health disorders can have devastating impacts on overall health and well-being.

Mental health disorders are often treated with pharmaceutical drugs, which can cause a number of side effects, including drowsiness, agitation, insomnia, sexual dysfunction, and headaches (11Trusted Source).

What’s more, medications like benzodiazepines have the potential for dependence and may lead to substance use disorder.

CBD oil has shown promise as a treatment for some mental health disorders, such as anxiety disorders, leading many people who live with these conditions to become interested in this natural approach.

In a Brazilian study, 57 men received either oral CBD or a placebo 90 minutes before they underwent a simulated public speaking test. The researchers found that a 300-mg dose of CBD was the most effective at significantly reducing anxiety during the test (12Trusted Source).

Little to no effect was reported in those who took the placebo, a 150-mg dose of CBD, or a 600-mg dose of CBD (12Trusted Source).

CBD oil has been used to safely treat insomnia and anxiety in children with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a type of anxiety disorder (13Trusted Source).

A small 2019 study also found that CBD was effective for reducing PTSD-related symptoms, including nightmares, in adults (14Trusted Source).

Several other studies have found that CBD may be effective for those with social anxiety and other anxiety-related disorders (15Trusted Source).

Even though some people find that CBD improves symptoms related to depression, human evidence of CBD’s potential antidepressant abilities is currently limited (15Trusted Source).

However, results from several studies suggest that it may help reduce depressive symptoms in those with cannabis use disorders (15Trusted Source).

Research investigating the effects of CBD on symptoms of anxiety and depression is ongoing.

In fact, a study evaluating the possible effectiveness of 150–300 mg of CBD per day for 12 weeks on anxiety and depression symptoms in people with bipolar disorder is expected to be completed in April 2022 (15Trusted Source).


May alleviate certain cancer-related symptoms

CBD may help reduce some cancer-related symptoms and side effects related to cancer treatment, such as nausea, vomiting, and pain.

An older study looked at the effects of CBD and THC in 177 people with cancer-related pain who did not experience relief from pain medication.

Those treated with an extract containing both compounds experienced a significant reduction in pain compared with those who received only THC extract (16Trusted Source).

A review of five studies found some evidence that Sativex may help reduce cancer-related pain in some people (17Trusted Source).

However, findings from studies investigating the effects of cannabis and cannabinoids like CBD on cancer-related nausea, pain, and decreased appetite have been mixed (18Trusted Source).

Even though CBD may be helpful for some people with cancer, more research is needed to determine whether CBD should be used more regularly in cancer symptom management.

If you have cancer and are interested in using CBD or other cannabis-derived products, it’s important to consult your healthcare team. These products may not be safe, appropriate, or effective for all people with cancer.


Different types of modern CBD

CBD products come in three forms. Full-spectrum CBD has all the components of the cannabis plant, including up to 0.3% THC. Broad-spectrum CBD has all of the components of the plant except THC. And CBD isolate is pure CBD with no other compounds from the cannabis plant.

Cannabis sativa contains a diverse set of phytocompounds such as cannabinoids, terpenes, carbohydrates, fatty acids, and phenolic compounds [1]. Notably, cannabinoids are the most sought after phytocompounds in C. sativa and are synthesized in the trichomes of the plant [1]. Among the different C. sativa chemotypes that have been identified, those high in Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) are commonly called marijuana and used for both medicinal and recreational purposes. The other chemotypes that are non-psychoactive, rich in fiber and cannabidiol (CBD) while low in THC, are known as hemp or industrial hemp. These chemotypes are used for food, medicine, and textile production [2,3]. The most predominant cannabinoids present in industrial hemp are cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) and cannabigerol acid (CBGA), precursors to CBD and cannabigerol (CBG), respectively [3].

CBD consumption, either as pure edible extract or inhaled, has been reported to reduce tobacco and cigarette use, to have cardiac and extracerebral benefits, promote calmness, aid in sleep, work as an antiepileptic through reduction in seizures, have anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antioxidant properties, and to act as a neuroprotectant [4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13]. Cannabinoids interact with two G-protein-linked cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2) [13]. The CB1 receptor is in the brain and also localized in the central nervous system while the CB2 receptor is highly expressed in peripheral organs with immune function and hence is upregulated in response to immune cell activation and inflammation [14]. Many of the psychoactive analgesic effects of THC are due to its interaction with the CB1 receptor, while the non-psychoactive cannabinoids, like CBD, have a lower affinity for both CB1 and CB2 receptors [3].

Previous studies have focused on the oral and intraperitoneal pharmacokinetics of THC and CBD together in human plasma and also on CBD in humans, dogs, rats and pigs [15,16,17,18,19]. However, despite many publications on cannabinoid metabolism and distribution in human and animal studies, there is a lack of information regarding the absorption and bioavailability of cannabinoids. Bioavailability includes digestion, absorption, metabolism, distribution, and bioactivity of the ingested compound. In general, the fraction of the total ingested compound that reaches systemic circulation is defined as bioavailability [20]. Bioaccessibility is defined as the quantity of a compound that is released from the food matrix and becomes available for absorption by the intestine epithelial cells [20]. While the information on CBD bioaccessibility in humans is incomplete, animal studies on rats, mice, and piglets for CBD oral and absolute bioavailability show low bioavailability [21,22]. For example, in a study where Rhesus monkeys received an oral dose, CBD was only 16% bioavailable on average [23]. In addition, the 16% bioavailability was lower than that in another study where CBD solution was administered orally to rats [21]. Also, bioavailability following oral administration of CBD to dogs was low due to the first pass effect [24]. Extremely poor oral bioavailability of CBD in in vivo studies might be due to its poor water solubility, or metabolism to other metabolites such as 7-OH CBD via CYP3A4 and CYP2C19 enzymes, or glucuronidation, resulting in clearance [25,26]. Therefore, understanding CBD bioaccessibility and absorption following oral administration is very important to comprehend the challenges in dose dependent administration and provide insight for formulation and drug delivery to increase oral bioavailability of CBD and other cannabinoid species in humans.


1 comment

  1. 30 November 2020 at 13:47
    Camille Schowalter

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